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There are 29 ethnic groups in Mongolia, all descended  from both Mongolian nomadic tribes and ethnic Turkic groups. Mongolia is populated mainly by Khalkha Mongols (86% of the population), the other most important ethnic groups being the Kazakhs in the west of the country and the Buryats in the north.

Ethnic differences between different Mongol groups are minor. Clan or linguistic differences have not been a political or social problem for a long time and the Mongols are a peaceful people 


There are more Mongols living outside the borders of Mongolia than inside : 3.5 million in China and 1 million in Russia, not counting the descendants of the conquering hordes that the found in Central Asia (Yunnan, Nepal, Afghanistan, etc.) and as far away as Turkey.


About 60% of the population in Mongolia is urbanized, and more than half of this urban population lives in Ulaanbaatar. The estimated population (2002) of Ulaanbaatar is about 1 million inhabitants, half of whom live in apartments in buildings in the city center.


The population of Ulaanbaatar has increased by about 50% in the last 5 years due to a rural exodus from the countryside and provincial towns, especially after the two years of Dzud. Most of these migrants live in the yurt suburbs surrounding the capital.

Données démographiques

Population (2006 est.): 2,594,800

Male: 1,265,300

Female  : 1,329,500


Density (2006 est.): 1.6 inhab/km²


Rural density (2006 est.): 0.65 inhab/km²


Ulaan Baatar population (2006 est.): 994,300


Population Ulaan Baatar (east 97): 649,800


Darkhan population (2006 est.): 87,500 


Erdenet population (2006 est.): 79,400


Main ethnic groups: Khalkha (86%) - Kazakh (6%) - Buryat (2%)

Population growth (2006 est.): 1.3%


Fertility index (2006 est.): 2.1


Average life expectancy (2006 est.): 65.85

Male: 62.59

Female  : 69.38


Births under medical assistance (2001 est.): 99%


Access to health care: 95%


Child mortality  : 19.1 / 1,000


Maternal mortality: 145 / 100,000


Literacy rate (2002 est.): 83%


Official language: Mongolian khalkha. 

Russian is also frequently spoken. English  and German are rarely spoken,mainly in the capital.

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