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Physical geography

Mongolia is landlocked in the heart of the largest land mass on earth. 


It has an area equal to that of France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Spain and Portugal combined.


The territory of Mongolia is covered with high plateaus and three mountain ranges:


- chain Altai to the West where is  the highest point of the country (4,374m), and which extends in an arc towards the Gobi forming the Altai Gobi,


- the mountains Khanghai in the center (highest point3,905m) which are the main water tower in the country and the source of the most important river in Mongolia, the river Selengewhich flows into Lake Baikal, this gigantic Siberian inland sea which overlooks the north of the country,


- the mountains Khentii, native lands of Chingis Khan east of the capital covered with humid forests. Their peaks culminate at 2,800m


The country, although far from the coast (600 km at its nearest border), has an important network of rivers and numerous lakes, located mainly in the North.


The most famous of these lakes is undoubtedly the lake Khovsgol located in the northwest of the country, both for the sacred aspect it represents for the Mongols, and for the attraction that the almost alpine landscape of an immense blue lake (130 km long by 30 km wide), with crystal clear water bordered by a thick taiga forest haunted by many large mammals, and overlooked by majestic snow-capped mountains.


The Northa nd the West of the country are essentially mountainous and covered with meadows, steppes and forests which allow good pasture and therefore a relatively dense population,


The South consists mainly of the Gobi Desert, a sagging plateau covered in sparse vegetation and sparsely populated by camel, goat and sheep herders. 


East is composed of immense steppes and grasslands extending to the east of the Khentii Mountains.

Political Geography

Mongolia is wedged between two giants, Russia and China.


Until the 20th century, it possessed a territory twice as large as it is today. The northern part is  now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, the southern part made up of a large part of the Gobi desert, is firmly controlled by China.


The territory of Mongolia is divided into four independent municipalities - Ulaan Baatar, Darkhan Uul, Orkhon and Gov Sumber - and 18 provinces (aimag) divided into 331 departments (sum).

Aimags of Mongolia



Location : North Asia, between Russia and China


Area : 1,564,100 km² 


Geographical coordinates : 46 00 N, 105 00 E


Geographical Zones : 


desert steppe


mountain steppe





Borders : 8,161 km


with Russia : 3,485 km

with China   : 4,676 km


Highest altitude : Huiten Uul  4 374 m


Lower altitude : Hoh Nuur 532 m


Average altitude : 1,580m


Biggest lake : UV Nuur 3,350 km²


Longest river : Orkhon Gol 1,124 km


Capital city : Ulaan Baatar 1,350m


provinces(aimag): 21


Timezone :GMT+8

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