History of Mongolia : Chronology and details
"A people that can build a wall like this certainly have a great past to be proud of " - Richard Nixon while admiring the Great Wall of China.
"The people that forced the building of a wall like this certainly have at least as great a past to be proud of" - B.Baabar Mongolian historian
Introduction of Mongolian history with Chinggis Khan
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The history of Mongolia is dominated by the mythical stature of Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan for the mongols) who has the head of these hordes of wandering tribes reunified under its banner, conquered At the 13th century the vastest empire which the ground ever knew, cutting through has path of blood and fury of the Pacific Ocean to the heart of Europe.
Temudjin, its true name before being proclaimed Chinggis Khan, is quasi has divinity for Mongolian: it brought to them glory, the conquests and has code of conduct and organization. Its image is more than ever present in Mongolia of today although it was presented like has sanguinary barbarian by the official history during Communism. The savage wandering warriors of the steppes durably and painfully marked all the people which knew them closely gold by far, and to to to to their conquering forwardings are reported since the 5th century before JC in the first Chinese writings.
500 000 BC Human presence in Mongolia
4000 BC to 2000 BC Bronze age
2000 av. JC Developpement of herding in Mongolia
700 à 500 av. JC Transition to the beginning of the iron age
400 av. JC Construction of the Great Wall of China, who was used as a frontier between China and Hunnu
BC Modun Shanyui built first state, which named Hunnu
BC Xionghu (Hunnu) Mongolian Empire reaches the Yellow river
1-100 Xionghu expelled from China
AD Xianbei (Sumbe) defeat Hunnu state and became most powerful in
Xianbei conquer northern China
to 533 Period of Northern Wei Dynasty, established by the Toba in northern
China mid-8th century
early Mongol links with Tibetan Buddhism
Kyrghiz defeat ruling Uighurs
Beginning of Kitan period , established over eastern
1122 The ruling Kitan defeated by Chineese
The child Temujin, later to become Chinggis Khan, is born
Temujin takes the title of Chinggis Khan(Universal King)
1189 to 1205 Chinggis Khan unites Mongols
Chinggis Khan proclaims himself ruler Of the Mongol Empire
Chinggis Khan launches attacks to China
Khanbalik (Beijing) falls to the Mongols
Chinggis Khan dies
Ogedei Khan, Chinggis’s third and favourite son, proclaimed the second
1235 Karakorum built by Ogedei Khan
Marco Polo arrives in Karakorum
1236 to 1240 Campaigns against Russia by Bat Khan, little son of Chinggis Khan, with his Golden Horde
1237 Start of campaigns to Russia and Europe (battke of the river Kalka) that was halted at Vienna with death of Ogedei
1240 to 1480 Suzerainty over Russia established by Golden Horde
Conquest of Song China
Dead of Ogedei
1241 to 1242 Poland and Hungarn invaded
Guyuk, son of Ogedei, becomes Khan, he dies that year
Mongke (Monkh) from another wing of the family becomes Khan
1251 Iran invaded
Dead of Mongke, his brother Kublai becomes Khan
Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamluks
1261 Khubilai becomes great khan
Capital moved from Karakorum to Khanbalik (Beijing)
1274 and 1281 Unsuccessful attempts at invasion of Japan
Marco Polo arrives in China
Hangzhou, capital of Song China falls to the Mongols
Kublai Khan, Chinggis Khan’s grandson, completes the conquest of China
Kublai Khan dies
Mongol invasion of Syria
1368 Mongols driven out of China ,Yuan Dynasty destroyed
Civil war in Mongolia
Altan Khan converts to Buddhism and gives the title Dalai Lama to Sonam
Erdene Zuu, Mongolia’s first monastry, is started
Zanabazar proclaimed leader of Buddhists in Mongolia
Independence from China
Russia, China and Mongolia sign agreement to grant independence to
Chineese invade Mongolia again
Chineese defeated, Mongolia’s independence proclaimed by Sukhbaatar
Bogd Khan (Holy King) dies, the Mongolian People’s Republic declared
by the communists
Russian and Mongolian troops fight Japan in eastern Mongolia
Pro-democracy protests held, communists win multi-party election
New constitution announced, communists win another election
Democratic Coalition unexpevtedly thrashes communists in an election
Communists unexpectedly thrash the Democrats in the election
before Mongolians proper was inhabited by various nations since the
ancient times. The earliest known governmental entity in what is
nowadays Mongolia is the Xiongnu, or Hun state. Historians still argue
whether the Huns were a proto-Mongolian tribe, or a proto-Turkic ethnic
group. Nevertheless, the Huns formed a highly elaborate state in Central
Asia led by a monarch called “shanyu”.
209 B. C. new shanyu Modun started to subjugate neighbouring nations and
created a vast kingdom covering most of Mongolia and some Central Asia.
The Hun state rivaled with Chinese Han dynasty that resulted in a major
conflict for the supremacy in the region. Although shanyu Modun’s army
was largely outnumbered by the Chinese, he managed to defeat the latter
and make a peace treaty. The Chinese emperor recognized Modun and the
Hun state. The Hun leader also successfully engaged in the westerly
battles against the Sogdians an Iranian-speaking people.
the time of Modun’s death in 174 B. C., the Huns had an efficient
administrative system and a superb military. Huns practiced shamanism
and worshipped variuos spirits and demons. The only challenger of the
Huns was China. Eventually, the ruling house of Modun began to stagnate
and princes plunged into intrigues that weakened the state affairs. In
90 B. C. Chinese emperor U-di launched a massive onslaught on Huns.
Shanyu moved Huns and other subjects of the kingdom to meet them. The
battle of Yangjan marked the last great victory of the Hun state.
that battle, Hun princes renewed conspiracies and fights over power in
the ever weakening kingdom. Triggered by Chinese emissaries, the non-Hun
subjugates began to secede and the centralizing will of the shanyu waned
day after day. The relations with the Han dynasty combined wars and
peace treaties alike.
In 48 A. D., the Hun state broke into northern and southern parts. The southern Huns recognized the suzerainty of the Chinese emperor. The northerners faced a great many problems. First of all, the neighbouring Xianbi (Syanbi) made a military offensive against the Northern Huns. Crippled by Chinese enmity and Xianbi aggression, the Northern Huns migrated westwards in circa 150 A. D. Thus, the northern branch of Huns tore into four groups. Xianbis absorbed some Huns. Others moved to China and Central Asia. The very last remnants of Huns went far west and became known to Europeans. Their infamous leader Attila initiated the turmoil of European nations and created an ephemeral state in Central Europe, which collapsed after his death.
generally considers Xianbis to be of Mongolian origin. Their first
leader Tanshihuai gathered loose clans and invaded Huns and the Chinese.
He rose to power at a very young age and accomplished important
political objectives for the Xianbi nation. He got rid of Huns and in
158 A. D. secured the southern borders by attacking China. The latter
answered with a 30-thousand army and was utterly defeated. Tanshihuai
became an acknowledged leader in Central Asia, but died early. The
single Xianbi state fell into feuds and never again unified.
years 250-550 A. D. were quite tumultuous in both Central Asia and
China. Xianbis and Huns assailed China and produced many short-living
governments. Every one waged wars with each other. Jiao state of Huns
and Muyun and Toba states of Xianbis were the most prominent of that
time’s chaos of wars and revolts. Xianbi leaders called themselves
“khans”. This term applied later to all steppe governments.
the steppes of Mongolia, some Xianbis brought into being the Joujan
kingdom. A huge domain covered entire Mongolia and balanced the power
with Toba empire and Tibetans. With a complex governmental system,
Joujan effectively brought under its control western tribes of Tele.
Joujan introduced a military subordination. Like Huns, Joujan people
believed in natural spirits and exercised divination and sorcery.
Nevertheless, historical documents suggest that Buddhist missionaries
were present in Joujan and had many converts. Especially, monk
Dharmapriya converted over 300 Joujan families.
In the 6th century A. D. Joujans ended a mutually exhausting war with Toba. Toba, a Xianbi kingdom in China, soon fell to the natives, who regained control of their land. Joujan suffered mutiny in subjugated tribes, especially Turkics. In 545, Turkic leader Bumin rejected Joujan dominance and drove them to China where they either perished, or assimilated.
name “Turkic” is intentional here to avoid confusion with modern
Turks. Although modern Turks share a common root with Turkics, they both
are separate nations chronologically and geographically.
and his partner Istemi created a truly Eurasian empire from the Yellow
Sea to the Urals. In a short period of 555-590 A. D., Turkic army
reached the Caspian Sea and made a contact with Byzantine and Iran. The
Turkic empire had the Silk Road winding through its land which was an
important geopolitical benefit. The Turkics managed to win over China
and demand silk as reparations. Also, Turkics successfully conducted
diplomatic relations with the Byzantine empire and received ambassadors
a vast monarchy gradually slided into feuds and separated into Eastern
and Western kingdoms. The cause of division was strife among princes and
insurrection of conquered nations. In the early 7th century, Eastern
Turkic khan Kat-Il khan surrendered to the Chinese Tang dynasty. Western
Turkics formed a confederation to appease local tribes, but eventually
disintegrated. The Tang dynasty established its hegemony of Central Asia
by the year 630 A. D.
Turkic empire is marked by an upsurge of written documents preserved
mainly in stone monuments. These stone inscriptions written by an
ancient Turkic alphabet tell much of their lifestyle and religion.
Turkics were heathens and practiced shamanism.
people under the Tang dynasty fought in Chinese armies against Koreans,
Tibetans etc. But in 689 A. D., as the Turkic stone says, they revolted
and established the Second Turkic empire. Turkic people of the Second
kingdom are called “Blue Turks”, for they revered sky.
Turks returned to the steppes and found themselves surrounded by enemies.
The Chinese were in the south. Karluks and Kyrgyz nation were to the
west. Blue Turks led by a brilliant general Kul-tegin crushed each of
them and became a challenging force in the Central Asia. Under khan
Bilge, general Kul-tegin and councellor Tonyukuk, Blue Turks revived the
olden traditions. The following generations enjoyed a relative peace.
Next khan Yollig-tegin was the author of several stone writings.
In 745 A. D., the Second Turkic empire suffered a civil war with Uighurs, a Turkic-speaking, yet separate nation. Uighurs won this conflict and on the ruins of Blue Turks set up their own kingdom.
were a Turkic-speaking nomadic nation that lived in Central Asia. They
are not to be confused with modern Uighurs who are primarily settled
people. The Second Kingdom of Blue Turks fell victim to bloody court
intrigues. The subjects began to rebel. Uighurs were successful in the
mutiny and managed to overthrow the Turkic rule. Uighur khan Peilo
asserted his independence and initiated diplomatic relations with Tang
China. His heir Moyanchur sat on the throne in 747 A. D., when he
suddenly faced riots of Uighur nobility. This event shows the falsehood
of the European myth about the absolute authority of Oriental rulers. On
the contrary, Central Asian monarchs had a limited set of political
powers. Aristocrats had such freedom, which allowed them to have a sort
of “checks and balances” system. This political structure was highly
efficient in the various steppe monarchies.
defeated the rebels, Moyanchur khan led Uighurs to wars that secured the
state. In the west, he utterly crushed Turgesh and Kyrgyz nations. Later,
the Uighur kingdom waged brilliant campaigns to fend off external
enemies and became a Central Asian hegemon. Uighurs were involved in
several Chinese rebellions and internal feuds. For example, Uighurs
interfered in Chinese war against An Lushan warlord. Moreover, they had
relationships with Tibet and these three kingdoms, namely Uighur, China
and Tibet, battled with each other, forming alliances and coalitions.
wars enfeebled the Uighur kingdom. In the 9th century, Uighurs faced
separatist tendencies among the conquered peoples. Most notably, Kyrgyz
lord Ajo declared his independence in 818 A. D. and threatened Uighurs
to overrun them. Thus it happened in 840. The Kyrgyz army took the
Uighur capital and treasury and ousted all natives. The Uighur remnants
led by Pan Tore fled to Zungaria. Some of them escaped to the Far East
at first worshipped natural spirits and demons. Then in the second half
of the 8th century, Uighurs had converted into Manichaean faith,
introduced to them from Iran. That was a mystic blend of Christian and
Gnostic beliefs. The new religion brought a new alphabet derived from
the Sogdian writing form.
Kidans were of Mongolian stock. That was proven by prominent scholars of
later period. Although they are not direct ancestors of modern
Mongolians, Kidans spoke a language akin to the latter and inhabited
Western Manchuria. Kidans had an elective monarchy. Representatives of
eight Kidan clans elected a single ruler for three years. In such a way,
Kidans lived for most of the 9th century, heeding not the wars of
in 907, a triumphant ruler Elui Ambagan refused to give up the position
after three years and announced his claim on the title of emperor.
During the next years, Elui Ambagan conquered neighbouring nations, thus
strengthening his place in Central Asia. When he died in 927 A. D., his
son Deguan received a stable kingdom that would challenge the previous
empires. In 936 A. D., Deguan annexed 16 Chinese districts including
Beijing. That prompted the Chinese to acknowledge the emperor’s title
946 A. D., Deguan launched his army to into China and captured the
capital city. According to the ceremonial tradition of that time, he
proclaimed the establishment of the Liao dynasty. The new empire had to
achieve several tasks, such as dealing with Southern China and pacifying
North-Eastern indigenous nations. From 966 to 973 A. D., there was a
major war between Liao and Tatars, a nomadic tribe. Then Kidans of Liao
turned south and averted the Southern Chinese army. Kidans spent the
next twenty years keeping these Tatars, Tszubu peoples in their control.
The war with Korea was unproductive.
were a Manchu-speaking nation that paid tribute to the Liao dynasty.
Seeing that the latter crumbles under the enormous weight of war
expenditures and royal feuds, Jurchens rebelled and attacked Kidans. The
Liao Empire fell in 1125 A. D.
Kidan prince Elui Dashi conducted a series of counter-attacks on
Jurchens, but failed to save the kingdom. He gathered what little was
left of his people and escaped westwards. There he met Seljuks. In 1141,
Seljuk sultan Sanjar moved his army against Kidans fleeing from China.
Elui Dashi courageously battled with the sultan and defeated him. Then
Elui Dashi settled in Central Asian and formed a small state.
Later, these Kidans were known as Kara-kidans, or Black Kidans.
It is interesting that Kidans assumed Chinese hieroglyphics for their language, whilst previous nomadic lords had syllabic Iranian, or runic alphabets. The Liao Empire was governed by the Chinese administrative model. The culture of Kidans was very high. The Han-Lin Academy provided courses of Chinese and Kidan philology for princes.
are an ancient nation. Chinese historians confirm the existence of
Mongolian tribes even in the 10th century. At that time, Mongolians
inhabited eastern Central Asia and most parts of northern Manchuria.
Legends said that Grey Wolf and Beautiful Deer were the progenitors of
the Mongolian folk, but the first real known Mongolian is Bodonchar, who
led his people out of oblivion. The approximate year of this event is
970 A. D.
descendants became rulers of Mongolians, but the title was rather
nominal. Various clans and tribes had their own lords. Emerging as a
separate national entity, Mongolians plunged into the politics of the
region. The major power in Central Asia was the Jurchen dynasty of
Tszing. Jurchens handled the nomadic nations off their borders,
attacking them from time to time.
rulers fruitlessly defended their land, due to the large disintegration
of the many clans. In 1162 A. D., Temüjin, future Chinghis, was born to
Yesugey, a kinsman of the Mongolian khan. When he was about 10 years,
the enemy tribe of Tatars poisoned his father. The family of Temüjin
was later abandoned by the relatives. Thus, Yesugey’s two widows dwelt
all alone with six small children. The eldest child Temüjin rose to
prominence pretty fast. When he turned 20, he successfully gathered a
band of followers, who eagerly joined him.
1185 A. D., the grand assembly of Mongolian noblemen proclaimed Temüjin
as the khan of Mongolia and entitled him with the name Chingis. Although
influential lords recognized Chingis, there was a considerable
opposition to him that began military operations. Chingis suffered
initial defeats and a presumed exile, after which he had only a handful
of supporters. In circa 1193 A. D., Chingis regained the leading role in
the Central Asia. He routed his foes and rivals. Chingis began to unite
the numerous tribes into a single Mongolian nation.
in 1206 A. D., the grand assembly of all Mongolian leaders unanimously
elected Chingis as the khan of All Mongolia. This time, there wasn’t
anybody opposing. The year 1206 is marked as the establishment of
instituted a codified law instead of nomadic habits and reorganized the
army, taxes and administration of the state. He also introduced the
Mongolian alphabet derived from the Uighur writing.
Mongolian Empire: 1206-1368
waged a decisive war with the Jurchen dynasty in Northern China. His son
Juchi conquered nearby nations of Siberia thus securing northern borders.
In 1215 A. D., the war success shifted to Mongolians. Apart from that,
Chingis launched a massive military campaign on the western flank.
Defeating the Kara-Kidans, the Mongolian ruler approached Khwarezm in
what is now modern Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. The war with Khwarezm
began in 1218 A. D. The Mongolian army sweeped across Transoxania,
taking over major Khwarezmian cities. Urgench, Samarkand, Gherat, Merv,
Bukhara and many other towns fell under Chingis.
1221 A. D., the talented Mongolian generals Jebe and Subedey moved
further west, passing around the Caspian Sea. As they marched, Jebe and
Subedey approached Georgia and Armenia. These two Caucasian kingdoms
were also conquered by Mongolians, who later crossed the Caucasus
Mountains and entered the lands of Russian princes. In 1223 A. D., Jebe
and Subedey met with Russians on the river Kalka and overwhelmed them.
Then the two generals turned back and went home going through Volga
Bulgaria and Urals.
died in 1227 A. D. He left a large empire stretching from Caucasus to
the Korean peninsula, from China to Siberia. His son Ögedey sat on the
throne in 1229 A. D. He continued the war with Jurchens who castle after
castle suffered losses. In 1235 A. D. Mongolia took the last Jurchen
Mongolian empire had a strict hierarchical structure. The main power was
in the hands of the great khan. The consultative organ was the grand
assembly, Huralday, of generals and aristocracy. Chingis’ stepbrother
Shihihutug was responsible for the judiciary duties. Tsagaaday, second
son of Chingis, ensured the effectiveness of the great law, the Yasa.
1235 A. D., the Huralday approved the western campaign to be led by
Batu, the grandson of Chingis assisted by general Subedey. That army
marched dashed thousands of kilometers and took Russia. In a short
period of 1237-1240, the Mongolian military captured important Russian
cities, including Kiev, Vladimir, and Ryazan etc.
Batu entered Europe attacking Hungarians and Poles. In 1241, the
Mongolians defeated Europeans at Liegnitz. In 1242 A. D., when Batu
stood upon the shores of the Adriatic leaving Hungary, Moravia and
Bohemia in ruins, a messenger came with the news that Ögedey khan died
and that princes of the Chingis dynasty should turn back to Mongolia.
Batu departed from Europe and settled in the Volga region, establishing
the Golden Horde.
results of the western operation brought the Mongolian empire onto the
international arena. European emissaries went to the Mongolian capital
Karakorum to develop diplomatic relations with the khan.
next Mongolian khan Guyeg reigned only two years. The throne was given
to Mönh, a shrewd politician who kept liaisons with the Roman Catholic
pope and European kings. Mönh started the Middle Eastern campaign. The
army moved from Mongolia to Iran and Syria. In 1258 A. D., Mongolians
captured Baghdad and set up another dominion.
next khan Hubilay who inherited the empire in 1260 conquered Southern
China and annexed Korea. His reign was the longest. Vietnam and Burma
recognized the lordship of Mongolia. Nevertheless, Hubilay’s intention
to conquer Japan was unsuccessful. Two fleets ended with a complete loss.
In 1279 A. D., Hubilay moved the capital from Karakorum to Beijing and
formed the Yuan dynasty.
circa 1298 A. D., the Mongolian Empire covered most of the Eurasian
continent. The empire was a union of four dominions: the great khan’s
realm (Mongolia, China), the Golden Horde (Russia and Urals), the
Chagatay realm (Central Asia) and the Ilkhan kingdom (Iran and Middle
khans after Hubilay weren’t good rulers incapable to administer such a
vast state. The ruling Mongolians were largely outnumbered in the
conquered areas. One after another revolts broke off and provinces began
to secede. In 1312 A. D., the Golden Horde severed ties with the
metropoly. The natives of the Chagatay state took control in 1340’s.
Mongolians in Iran gradually vanished in the native population.
central imperial government also showed signs of decay. Thus, khan
Togoon-Tömör and other Mongolians fled from China in 1368 A. D., when
Chinese mutiny began to expand. This was the end of the Mongolian
downfall of the Mongolian empire led to a serious crisis in the
Mongolian society. This epoch is called “The Age of Lesser Monarchs”
in the historiography. Indeed, rulers of Mongolia after 1368 reigned
short time and constantly struggled with the nobility. The khan lost a
great amount of his political power. Local lords began to show
significant autonomy of their affairs. The once single Mongolian nation
started to disintegrate. Oirads seceded and formed their own monarchical
line. Then Mongolia broke into western and eastern parts. The eastern
part itself fractured into Outer and Inner lands. The Oirads were quite
active and occasionally raided into Central Asia.
single Mongolian language separated into distinct dialects, which later
evolved into languages. However, the 15-17th centuries were marked by
outstanding scholars and poets. For example, prince Tsogt was not only a
warrior, but also a poet and philosopher. Buddhism came into Mongolia in
the 16th century. In 1572 A. D., khan Altan officially embraced the
Buddhist teaching rejecting the old shamanic beliefs. Buddhism presented
Mongolians the vast literature on philosophy, theology and natural
khan’s supremacy was limited in the post-imperial Mongolia. 22 khans
ruled Mongolia in 1370-1634. Oirad prince usurped the throne in 1450 A.
D. breaking the tradition of Chingis descendants. Five years later, the
dynasty was restored. In 1470 A. D., khan Batmönh united all Mongolia
for 40 years. But his death resumed further partition of Mongolia.
15-17th centuries were prominent for many legal documents created by
Mongolian lords. During the empire, the great law Yasa single-handedly
governed the Mongolian society. So when each prince got fairly
independent, they released various laws and other legally binding
documents. For example, the legal code of khan Altan was effective in
the Tumed region. “The Mongol-Oirad Law” and “The Religious
Code” are among the most important.
1575 A. D., Manchu people came forward and assailed the Chinese Ming
dynasty. Furthermore, Manchus advanced into China and their leader
Nurhach declared his Ching kingdom in 1616 A. D. The Manchu army invaded
Mongolia and pressed on deep into realms of Mongolian lords.
1636 A. D. the council of Inner Mongolian princes admitted their defeat
and recognized the authority of the Manchu emperor. The last of the
Chingis line, khan Ligden resisted Manchus till his death 1634 A. D.
Thus ended the great dynasty. The situation worsened because some
Mongolian sided with the Manchu military to settle scores with their
rivals. In 1691 A. D., the princes of Outer Mongolia decided to accept
the lordship of the Manchu empire, leaving Zungaria the only independent
Manchus conquered Inner and Outer Mongolia incorporating them in their
empire. The Manchu emperor became the sovereign of Mongolia. However,
most Mongolian nobles retained their titles. The Ching government
reorganized the Inner Mongolian administration to its own accord.
24 provinces of Inner Mongolia were divided into 6 regions. The Ching
Empire appointed a governor to be in charge of Outer Mongolia. He
resided in the city of Uliastai. Another governor presided in the city
of Ih Huree and managed affairs in Central Mongolia. When Western
Mongolia finally succumbed to the Manchus, the latter established the
Howd governorship in 1762 A. D. administratively; Outer Mongolia
included three provinces in 1691 A. D. These are Tusheet khan province,
Zasagt khan province and Setsen khan province. Later in 1725 A. D., the
Manchu government formed the fourth province, the Sain khan province, as
a reward to lord Sain for his part in the war against the Oirads.
Mongolians embraced Buddhism, they elected in 1639 A. D. the head of the
Buddhist church. His title was Bogd. Bogd was responsible for religious
affairs and when Manchus arrived, they kept him as the formal Buddhist
leader. A special ministry controlled the doings of Bogd and looked
after Buddhist activities. All in all, the Ching Empire created a highly
elaborate administrative, tax and political arrangement for Inner and
resisted the Manchu rule with the means of rebellions and mutinies. In
1755 A. D., several Mongolian counts led an uprising that engulfed
Western Mongolia. Among the rebels were Galdan boshigt, Amarsanaa and
Chingunjav. The uprising was at first quite successful, but later
Manchus crushed it and severely punished the mutineers. Amarsanaa fled
Mongolia and found refuge in Russia where he died. Others were executed.
laws in Mongolia of the Manchu period encompassed every aspect the
Mongolian society. “Halh Juram” which was passed in 1709-1795 A. D.,
was the most advanced legal document of that time. There were also
“Legal Writings of Outer Mongolia” passed in 1817 A. D. It consisted
of 63 volumes of various legal clauses.
the time of the Manchu rule, Mongolian literature experienced its
revival. Poets and writers produced brilliant religious and secular
works. Famous monk Danzanrawjaa lived in the 19th century and was a
crafty playwright. Among his works is “Saran höhöö”.
Manchu government oppressed any thoughts of autonomy in Mongolia. As a
result, Mongolia spent the 19th century as a backward region of the
the beginning of the 20th century, the Manchu state rapidly declined and
the revolutionary thought of that time penetrated into Mongolia as well.
In 1911 A. D., the Republic of China replaced the Manchurian state.
intellectuals and statesmen of Outer Mongolia also brought changes and
proclaimed the independence of the country. The newly found state of
Outer Mongolia was a theocracy. It meant that the Bogd who was the
religious leader embraced the secular political power, too. In 1913 A.
D., the delegation of Outer Mongolian officials led by T. Namnansüren
visited the Russian empire and seeked help in securing the independence.
They failed to gain international recognition for Outer Mongolia.
1915 A. D., the talks of Outer Mongolia, the Russian empire and the
Republic of China began in the city of Kyakhta. Official Moscow and
Beijing refused to recognize the Outer Mongolian independence and
forcefully granted Mongolia only an autonomous status.
1919 A. D., the Chinese republican government abolished the autonomy and
dispatched troops to Outer Mongolia. The purpose of this venture was to
secure Chinese interests in Mongolia in case if Russian turmoil of 1917
would spread there. Mongolian pro-independence leaders organized
resistance in various parts of the country.
1921 A. D., as a result of revolutionary changes, Mongolia restored its
independence and formed a theocratic state. This time, the powers of the
Bogd the 8th were largely limited by the government. Then in 1924, when
the Bogd died, leaders of the revolution turned Mongolia into a republic
and adopted the first Constitution. The heads of the state aided by
Soviet counselors chose the Communist direction for Mongolia.
republican form in Mongolia brought reforms to the society. First, the
society was to be classless, so the nobility gave up all the privileges
and titles. Western medicine, technologies and education entered
Mongolia and mostly eliminated old feudal customs.
1930’s were cruel years in the Mongolian history. Like in all
Communist states of that time, political purges severely injured the
society. The regime was responsible for deaths of thousands of innocent
people accused by false charges.
1939 A. D., Mongolia engaged in a major conflict with Japan along the
Mongolian borders in the East. It is known as the Khakhingol incident.
The small skirmishes between Japanese and Mongolians patrols since 1936
developed into a massive border confrontation. Soviet military came to
Mongolia for aid. Soviet-Mongolian joint army defeated the Japanese
forces and made safe Mongolia’s eastern borders.
1945 A. D., the Chinese government recognized the independence of
Mongolia. Mongolia became a rightful member of the international
community and was admitted to the United Nations in 1961 A. D.
Mongolia was a primarily Communist country closely aligned with the Soviet Union until the late 1980’s. The world was changing and so was Mongolia. In December 1989 A. D., the democratic opposition demanded political reforms and staged crowdy demonstrations. As a result, Mongolia in 1992 A. D. adopted a new Constitution which granted open democracy and economic changes.
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