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Mongolia geography and maps


Mongolian physical geography : landscapes, deserts, mountains ...








Mongolia is landlocked in the heart of Eurasia, the greatest terrestrial mass of the globe. It is the 6th largest country in Asia and the 18th largest in the world occupying a territory of approximately 1.6 million square kilometers, about the same surface area as France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Spain and Portugal combined together. 


The territory of Mongolia, primarily in the west and southwest, is covered with the following three major mountain ranges accompanied by high plateaus. 


- The chain of Altaï in the west, the location of the country’s highest extremity (4,374 m), which extends in arc reaching Gobi and forms the region of Gobi Altaï;

- The Khangaï Range in the central part (peak: 3,905 m), which is the principal water tower of the country and the source of Selenge River, Mongolia’s largest river, flowing into Lake Baïkal, a gigantic inland sea, which extends in Russia’s Siberia to the north of the country;

- The Khentii Mounts, the native soils of Chingis Khan, with abundant forests and peaks rising up to 

2,800 m, which stretch to the east of the capital city. 


The country has a significant network of numerous lakes, rivers, streams and springs located mainly in the north.


The most famous of these lakes is unquestionably the lake Khovsgol located in the northwest of the country. It is remarkable by far more the crowned aspect it represents for Mongols than purely as an attraction for travellers. It is an immense blue lake (135 km long and 35 km wide) with crystal-clear, fresh water in the middle of a virtually alpine landscape surrounded by primeval forests and overhung by majestic snow-covered mountains. 


 Mongolia has a widely varied topography. The north and west of the country are primarily mountainous and covered with meadows, steppes and forests that support good pastures and, thus, a settled, relatively dense population.


South Mongolia, made up mainly of sagging plates, is the cradle of the famous Gobi Desert, the habitat of such rare mammals who are on the brink of extinction as Mazalai, Gobi’s brown bear, black tail antelope and Havtgai, wild bactrian camel. The Gobi’s region is sparsely populated with stockbreeders of camels, goats and sheep that are adapted to scarce vegetation.


The country’s east is composed of vast steppes and plains extending to the east from the Khentii Mounts.  



Political Geography in Mongolia : the Aimags and regions controlled of Mongolia


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Mongolia is wedged between two giants - Russia and China.


Until the 20th century, Mongolia had a territory twice as large as the current boundaries. The northern part now forms part of Siberia and the southern part comprising most of the Gobi Desert became an autonomous region of Inner Mongolia controlled by China.

The territory of Mongolia is divided into 21 main administrative units, including the municipality of Ulaanbaatar and 21 provinces (known as aimags), which are further divided into 331 counties (known as soums).


Aimags of Mongolia





























Demography and geographical datas of Mongolia



Location : North Asia , between Russia and China


Surface : 1 564 100 km²


Geographical coordinates : 41o35”-52o06” N and 87o47”-119o57”E


Geographical areas : 




Mountainous steppes



Total borders : 8 161 km


with Russia : 3 485 km

with China   : 4 676 km


Highest altitude : Huiten Uul 4 374 m


Lowest altitude : Hoh Nuur 532 m


Average altitude : 1 580 m


Largest lake : Uvs Nuur 3 350 km²


Longest river : Orkhon Gol 1 124 km


Capital : Ulaan Baatar 1 350 m


Provinces (aimag) : 21


Time zone : GMT + 8


Asphalt roads : 1 573 km



Touristic, Topographic and political maps of Mongolia (click to enlarge)



 topographic and political map 

Topographic and political map of Mongolia

307 Kb - Source : Texas University (Austin)



 political map 

Mongolia political map

165 Kb - Source : United Nations



 touristic map 

Touristic map of Mongolia

36 Kb - Source : Lonely Planet




 touristic map 

Touristic map of Mongolia

76 Kb - Source : Mongolia today


 political map 

Political map of Mongolia

65 Kb - Source : Magellan


Town map

ulaanaator map

65 Kb - Source :

Ulaanbaatar and around

Topographic map

Ulaan-baatar and around map

548 Kb - Source : Texas University (Austin)

Khovsgol lake and around

Topographic map

Khovsgol lake and around map

205 Kb - Source : Boojum

Gurvansankhai national park (Gobi)

Topographic and touristic map 

Gurvansankhai national park tourist map

29 Kb - Source : United Nations


 Map of dinosaurs fossils

Mongolia map of dinosaurs fossils

103 Kb - Source :



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